Research and Teaching Methodologies Using Human Rights Voices Summaries and applications of research and teaching methodologies using human rights voices from Honors students at the University of Arizona. Tweet Comments (10) Tiffanie O April 20, 2016 at 05:57 | # Participatory Action Learning and Action Research (PALAR) “The focus is on participatory action learning and action research (PALAR), a conceptual integration of lifelong action learning and participatory action research. PALAR is conceived as a philosophy, a methodology, a theory of learning, and as a facilitation process for community engagement” (Zuber-Skerritt 5). The Participatory Action Learning and Action Research is mostly a pedagogy, but also a research method. The PALAR method was founded in a South Africa under the high education programs. The method brings together participation, collaboration, communication, community of practice, and networking. The PALAR method is the active involvement of individuals in order to solve problems. In many places (like South Africa), community engagement is one of the core functions of higher education. This method is very much related to the ALAR method. The ALAR method is a program that integrates action research and action learning. These two methods: PALAR and ALAR were first discussed at the First World Congress on Action Learning in 1990 (in Australia). Many of these human rights research methods and/or pedagogy are closely related to one another. The most compelling application of the PALAR program is that it is constantly changing. For example, the PALAR method is applied in many different genres of pedagogy, “PALAR is an integrated concept of ALAR and PAR and lifelong learning, aiming at positive social change for a just and better world for all human beings. Action leadership can be developed through PALAR (Zuber-Skerritt 7). In addition, the journal article, “Participatory Action Learning and Action Research (PALAR) for Community Engagement: A Theoretical Framework,” Zuber-Skerritt applies the PALAR method the “Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model.” This model shows a connection between concrete experience, observations and reflections, formation of abstract concepts and generalizations, and testing implication of concepts in new situation. Zuber-Skerritt explains the PALAR method being applied to higher education and changing the traditional education systems. This model and method shows that when applied in higher education, it advances the readers understand the different frameworks used in education now. The PALAR pedagogy is an innovated method that helps the advancement of human rights voices. For example, the traditional way of teaching human rights voice was “teacher centered, content and curriculum based, located in classroom/laboratory, elitist, social justice not a conscious priority, formal education, mainly individualised learning, and competitive” (Zuber-Skerritt 8). The traditional research method could be potentially harmful to human rights voices because after the class or research was “done,” the students may be more inclined to “dismiss” the human rights issues that were learned. However, the PALAR method contributes to human rights voices because the research method is “learner centered, process and project based, interdisciplinary, problem oriented, located in real life/work, aimed at social justice, informal, based on contemporary cultural context, communities of learning, AL [action learning] sets, and collaboration” (Zuber-Skerritt 8). The PALAR pedagogy helps students and researchers learn about human rights voices and become more active in the social justice issues through various hands-on experiences (such as projects, etc). And there is a higher chance of social justice issues being promoted as awareness through research projects. The PALAR method can ultimately change the way students and teachers research various social justice issues. The method creates a sense of awareness and “real life” experience. reply Eve Beauchemin April 20, 2016 at 14:53 | # Transmedia storytelling, in its most general form, is the collaborative creation of content by various people, across multiple platforms, for a particular audience. These platforms can include both the digital and physical world, and any types of traditional and modern media including film, television, radio, social networking sites, websites, etc. In the context of human rights and social movements, transmedia storytelling enables the diverse voices of a community to participate in creating their own unique narrative. This narrative both accurately reflects the concerns of a people, and allows the intended audience to see and understand the movement in a variety of contexts. This methodology was originally created in the context of using transmedia storytelling for “...media conglomerates to distribute their franchises across platforms” (1). Thus, it was a means of increasing economic gain from a franchise. However, the most compelling application of transmedia storytelling is its use in social movements--where the term “transmedia storytelling” has been molded into “transmedia activism” (2) and “transmedia mobilization” (1) to reflect the dynamic nature of social movements. Lina Srivastava coined the term transmedia activism to describe her proposed way of creating social change. She said that it was “one of the best ways to have people connect to a cause, by exposing them to a variety of media properties over various distribution channels--which opens up avenues for dialogue and provides an audience an educational experience about workable solutions…” (2). Sasha Costanza-Chock took this term from Srivastava and applied it specifically to social movements, calling it transmedia mobilization, in which “a social movement narrative is dispersed systematically across multiple media platforms, creating a distributed and participatory social movement ‘world’, with multiple entry points for organizing, for the purpose of strengthening movement identity and outcomes" (1). In particular, transmedia storytelling is an optimal way for ensuring marginalized communities are heard. As described by Costanza-Chock, instead of the typical top-down hierarchy of presenting human rights, transmedia storytelling involves horizontal communication or “many-to-many media” (1), in which the voices of many people present their individual stories to a wide, ever-growing audience. Because transmedia storytelling is "…open to participation by the social base of [a social] movement" (1) it allows for the presentation of stories from multiple perspectives across multiple platforms, revealing the "social, political, and cultural context" of the movement (3). This results in both giving the audience a more complex, realistic picture of the issue, and letting the community affected by an issue “…tell its own stories and participate in or lead solutions-building” (3). Additionally, due to the prevalence of technology and the Internet, “[n]early anyone can create a blog or Tumblr page”, which “empowers everyone to become a voice of change” (4). -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (1) Costanza-Chock, Sasha. Chapter 5: Transmedia mobilization in the Popular Association of the Oaxacan Peoples, Los Angeles. In Mediation and Protest Movements (2013) Published by Intellect at The University of Chicago Press in Chicago, IL (2) Srivastava, Lina. “Transmedia Activism: Telling Your Story Across Media Platforms to Create Effective Social Change.” National Alliance for Media Arts & Culture. NAMAC, 4 Mar. 2009. Web. 31 Mar. 2016. (3) Srivastava, Lina. "Telling Stories: Lina Srivastava Talks About Transmedia Activism (Part One)." Interview by Henry Jenkins. Confessions of an Aca-Fan: The Official Weblog of Henry Jenkins. Henry Jenkins, 28 Jan. 2016. Web. 31 Mar. 2016 (4) Scime, Lauren. “The Role of Transmedia Storytelling for Affecting Change Toward Equality and Human Rights.” Web blog post. Pixelwicked. Lauren Scime, 2013. Web. 31 Mar. 2016. reply Jenna Brianne Radomski April 20, 2016 at 17:19 | # "Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a unique methodology that can be applied to numerous types of research projects. Unlike traditional research methods, those that engage in PAR are extremely passionate about the topics at hand and are not as concerned with reproducibility of the experiment. PAR is a collaboration in which researchers and members of the community work together to ask a question, develop a way to address the issue, and solve it. Another essential component of PAR is that there is an even balance of power between researcher and participant, which is very different from traditional research. Typically, the participant may only be provided the basic knowledge of the research project; however, with PAR the participants are a part of the process and are equally as involved. Overall, PAR is a unique methodology that is especially useful for human rights issues because it involves working within a community in order to address the real issue and actively affect change. PAR methods can be applied to many issues, even those that do not pertain to human rights. However, for this assignment we found several different research studies using PAR in regards to human rights. One of the most compelling applications of PAR we found aimed to build healthy communities for at-risk populations (Minkler). The author discussed the PAR methods paired with the Healthy Neighborhoods Project (HNP) that took place in West Contra Costa County, California. In this community, HIV/AIDS, violence, toxic waste, and unemployment is high. To combat these issues, HNP engaged local residents, the local health department, and community-based organizations to gain insight and support from all areas of the community. “Action team members” went door-to-door to conduct surveys for over 500 homes that aimed to answer questions such as, “What do you like best about living in this neighborhood?” and “What would you most like to see changed?” The results from this approach were astounding; the communities of the county achieved a few accomplishments including: 1) restored evening and night bus services in North Richmond, which in turn increased access to education and employment, 2) implemented a neighborhood watch program, increased frequency of garbage collection and police patrols, 3) and after a shooting, residents of West Boulevard, police, and other city officials planned long-term prevention strategies. Reading through this application of PAR was intriguing because not only were the short-term results successful, but also the community focused on creating sustainable solutions to the issues of the community. After reading through this application, I am confident that PAR methods would be effective and sustainable in many communities suffering through similar issues. PAR is a great methodology for human rights issues because it allows the voices of the Other to be directly heard. Unlike other research methods, PAR utilizes the input of marginalized community-members to solve an issue. While the input of the Other is extremely valued, it is never exploited. Confidentiality and autonomy of every individual or group involved are both highly respected. This is important because in much of human rights research, the voices of the marginalized are often taken out of context to evoke emotion in others. I find PAR so intriguing and important because while the people of these communities may not have resources to affect change, they often know what the root of the problem is and can give insight that an outsider would not be able to provide. reply Christa Sonderer April 21, 2016 at 18:05 | # Indigenous or decolonial research methodologies encompass a broad class of research methods (Porsanger 105) that can be newly created or altered to best fit the community in which the research is taking place. There are no exact methods that are always used, though there are specific guidelines and principles that must be followed. The goals of these methods are, primarily, to afford greater (and deserved) respect to indigenous communities during the research process, introduce worldwide views, and emphasize different social, political, and historical indigenous context (Peters 4). Researchers label their research with specific names of indigenous tribes, such as “Kappa Maori research” in New Zealand compared to a general label such as “collaborative research” (Smith 128). This difference in naming research and methodologies distinguishes indigenous practices, values, and attitudes, rather than “disguising them within Western labels” (Smith 128). Rather than treating indigenous people as objects in a study, they should be treated as people (Porsanger 105) who are capable of self determining (Peters 17) and should be endowed the respect and means to do so. Often times, researchers try to superficially relate to their subjects and fabricate comparable stories; this often makes the research participant feel not as important or heard (Kovach). As such, the goal of indigenous research methods is to enable research to be done for and by the community, thus giving back to the community rather than simply taking (Peters 18). The objectives of indigenous research methodologies are met using a variety of methods, which should be specifically tailored for each research project. Indigenous research involves a wide variety of individuals and subjects, but specifically, and slightly surprisingly, it can include and incorporate gender and racial issues as well (Smith). In order to construct a project that is meaningful and relevant to an indigenous community, a researcher must respect the ethics and culture of the community and thus create methods of research that observe, and furthermore, preserve these aspects of the community (Porsanger 110). Researchers should always keep respect, relevance, reciprocity, and responsibility, along with proper etiquette, present when using indigenous research methods (Peters). In effect, communication and collaboration are key elements of such methodologies. Researchers should ask the indigenous community when and how the research will take place and should report back to the communities (Porsanger 113), allowing the research participants to determine how to analyze and present the research. Types of methods used in actual studies include repeated visits and continuous contact with the community members throughout the research process, sharing circles, holding group meetings to share research and discuss next steps, and collecting written reflections about the research and data analysis. Lester-Irabinna Igney introduces a compelling application of an indigenous methodology by using his own research as an example of this methodologies. He researched how Indigenous people have contributed to Western science. He used a detailed, four step indigenous research methodology to discover results and findings. The four step method consists of 1) scope of debate to analyze indigenous people as scientific objects. 2) Chart historical moments that had led to the accommodation of indigenous Australians in Western Science. 3) Draws attention to the emergence of contemporary critical indigenous scholarship. And finally 4) complementing the third step, analyze and frame the emergence of indigenism within a broader spectrum for the indigenous people. He scopes different view points of indigenous research, and he finds significant eras, theories, and enlightenments of the indigenous people that may have contributed to western culture today. He goes into vast detail on these findings, discussing evolution, racial issues and debates, post modernism, feminism, and other movements that the indigenous people had been involved with. Lester-Irabinna Igney then discusses how, from these historical periods involved with the indigenous people, a new outlook of contemporary critical indigenous scholarship has been transformed. When analyzing the indigenism methods compared to non-indigenous research, he depicts how vast the discrepancies are, and how indigenous researchers need to point out and research more of these differences in scientific research and methods. This is compelling because it takes an example of indigenous research of Australian indigenous influence on western scientific culture, but also goes beyond that in contrasting how these findings may differ from a non-indigenous research on the topic. Lester-Irabinna Igney’s methodology also is compelling because he introduces a four step plan to indigenous research we have not seen in other articles, books, and sources. Linda Smith mentions another compelling application of methodology. She states that there are two distinct pathways in which methodology has been advanced. The first is through a community-based approach. This method is often “conceptualized, funded, and directed by a researcher” (Smith 128). Some indigenous communities have made their isolation part of the community bond, along with the spiritual significance of the land, though other indigenous communities are not geographically in the same area and do not necessarily configure within the same region, i.e. indigenous women or indigenous workers’ rights. Smith states that the process for community approaches to indigenous methods are often more important than the outcome of the research. “Processes are expected to be respectful, to enable people, to heal and educate...to lead one step further to self-determination” (Smith 129). Smith uses research called Iwi research, translated as tribal research. This is predominantly used in New Zealand studies of the Maori indigenous community. The compelling component of these Iwi studies within the Maori tribes is that Universities within New Zealand use the research, data, and results within a multitude of departments, including anthropology, medicine, education, law, and commerce. This opposes the typical use of indigenous research, limited to studies directly correlated to their own. As such, both studies advance the spread and acceptance of indigenous research methodologies among various disciplines and across different parts of the world, enabling people to complete and think about research in a culturally respectful way. Using indigenous research methods to conduct research and guide one’s publication and presentation of such research is a good way to represent human rights voices because the foundations of this type of research is strongly steeped in protecting human rights. The basic tenets of indigenous research methods are to give indigenous communities the power to self determine, control the research process, protect indigenous knowledge, and to humanize and respect indigenous communities. As such, the ways in which research is conducted – consulting with the community about how and when to conduct research, reporting back to the research participants, and utilizing collaborative communicative processes – presents the research participants with more power over the research, analysis of data, and the presentation of findings, allowing them to have a greater say in how they fit into the research. Also, indigenous research methods give greater importance to creating projects that are relevant to or benefit the participant community, which means that the research is more likely to actually help people who are marginalized. Additionally, the lack of strict adherence to certain methods and the flexibility researchers have in creating tailored research methods allows for a better representation of human rights voices because the research will be conducted in a way that fits that specific community. reply Amanda Tran April 22, 2016 at 01:44 | # Problem-based learning is a pedagogy that encourages active participation and analysis of real world problems. It is often used in education to prepare students with the problem-solving and communication skills necessary for higher education and work. This pedagogy emphasizes on collaboration, self-management, and critical thinking. Students are given a real world problem and are challenged to devise effective solutions to the issue. Instead of learning from lectures, students learn by doing, by working together, by having their voices heard in collaboration, and by critiquing each other. Students also gain a good understanding of real world problems, since many of the hypotheticals are based on real problems, cases, issues, and on people’s testimonies. One of the most compelling applications of problem-based learning is the application with disabilities. Often times, there is inequity between the partnership between the caretaker and the disabled person. Some caretakers can be overprotective and could hinder personal growth for the disabled person. The constant help and support that a caretaker provides can sometimes lead to negative effects, such as the disabled person feeling helpless without the caretaker. Problem-based learning is used to prevent that helplessness. It gives the disabled people the opportunity to do things for themselves. It lets them take responsibility for their needs and wants. In an educational atmosphere, problem-based learning allows the disabled person to learn and to destroy the sense of helplessness and dependency. The relationship between student and teacher is also affected through problem-based learning. Instead of relying on the caretaker to communicate with the teacher, disabled students are able to collaborate and form an understanding relationship with others who are there to support them. Problem-based learning in this application gives the disabled person more control over his own life and allows him to use his voice. Using hypotheticals and real world problems, the disabled student has an opportunity to think and do for himself. Problem-based learning is a good methodology for representing human rights voices because the real world problems that are often given relate to people personally through personal experience, concerns, issues, or interests. The problems that are generated are representing human rights voices, especially in human rights law. Student voices or voices from those who are actively participating in problem-based learning are heard as well through constant collaboration with others. An example of problem-based learning used for human rights is moot courts. Through these moot courts, the participants learn about the issues within the case and hear hypotheticals that are based on real testimonies from victims and perpetrators. Participants are most involved in human rights issue through problem-based learning, since they hear these voices from the hypotheticals and it prompts them to do something to help. Having problem-based learning represent human rights voices is a great way to get people to really listen and understand the human rights issues, to get involved in the cause, and to make a difference. Students and people can read essays or articles that represent human rights voices, but with problem-based learning they transition from an informed person to an active participant in fighting for those human rights voices (especially in moot courts). Problem-based learning is also useful to represent human rights voices for those victims and perpetrators who do not want to reveal their identities. The anonymity they ask for can be accommodated by using the hypothetical real world problems in the learning. reply Ciara Ann Daniels April 25, 2016 at 21:23 | # Pedagogy of the Oppressed In the book Pedagogy of the Oppressed by Paulo Freire, the author explains in his written texts the relationship between the teacher, student, and society. Freire uses a Marxist analysis in his exploration of what he calls “the colonizer” and “the colonized.” In Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Freire makes his first comprehensive foray into analyzing the relationship between oppressed peoples and their oppressors. This chapter is a statement of first principles, and like any foundation its density is justified by the weight and complexity of the structure that will be built atop it later. Overall, Freire is concerned with the liberation of any oppressed people and the transformation of all humans (oppressed and their oppressors alike) into self-actualized, creative, and empowered beings. Freire sees the relationship between the oppressors and the oppressed as a dialectic; a dynamic contradiction between two states of being that must be resolved through a disruptive struggle toward synthesis.. Throughout his work, he emphasizes dialogue, praxis, and paradoxical states of being, all of which deal with opposites and extremes coming together or confronting each other in some way. Freire argues that being oppressed is a dehumanizing experience. And the oppression negates the conditions. They are denied the ability to creatively and consciously work to shape and reshape their world. “Their thoughts and behaviors are circumscribed and prescribed by those who oppress them, and in many cases they may even be unaware of their own status as an oppressed people” (Page 24). To to overcome their oppression, the oppressed must first become fully aware of their condition. Friere talked about how they must come to the understanding that oppression is not a “natural” or inevitable condition, but an injustice they are capable of struggling to overcome. That awareness comes, in fits and starts, through dialogue, with the oppressed taking their first and most critical step toward naming their condition for themselves and creatively imagining another world. Along with dialogue, Freire puts forward the idea of praxis, or the iterative melding of reflection and action, as a liberating process. When praxis manifests as reflection, it becomes an opportunity for the oppressed to craft a new story about themselves and their place in the world. Brought together, reflection creates action with purpose and clear intent. These themes comprise the pedagogy that Freire lays out in Pedagogy of the Oppressed. He compares this process of learning through dialogue, reflection, and action to the process of “childbirth”. It’s a painful struggle, it involves labor, and it brings something new into the world. “It is a process of learning, and in order to bear fruit it must allow the oppressed to be subjects involved in their own learning – rather than inanimate objects acted upon by an oppressive teacher.” Learning, Freire tells us, must be co-intentional; a process that dissolves the boundaries between teacher and student. Freire is clear in believing that only the oppressed, through their struggle to overcome their oppression, can liberate both themselves and their oppressors. Overall, Freire developed a new and unique educational method to work within the environments of the oppressed and poor. This is a good methodology because it talks about the discrimination within impoverished educational systems and how students and teachers can overcome poverty and a negative economic situation. Unfortunately, injustice still manifests itself in a number of ways by continued racial isolation in American schools; the massive inequity in resources between majority-minority schools and majority White schools; and the unequal treatment of racial minority students within schools, regardless of degree of desegregation. Taken together, these factors function to undermine the economic, social, and political potential and opportunities of racial minorities in the United States, perpetuating—if in a different way—the second-class citizenship that has defined their experience in America for centuries. In large part because the U.S. public education system has failed them, racial minority students in the United States trail significantly behind their White peers. The shortcomings of the educational system are not limited to elementary and secondary schools. Black and Latino students have significantly lower college-going rates than their White counterparts. And because students of color are both less likely to be academically prepared and more likely to experience economic hardship, their college completion rates are lower as well. We found the most compelling application of our methodology, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, to be that of Kieran Walsh. With the help of the pedagogy, he explains the current marginalization of low-income students within the medical field. These students are greatly underrepresented in the field because of financial and societal reasons; high tuition costs make a medical education seem less desirable to these marginalized, and cultural framing of career choices may cause underachievement in poorer students. Walsh uses Freire’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed to explore the reasons for this marginalization in medical education. We thought this was most compelling because Walsh doesn’t use the pedagogy in a typical way, in an educational or classroom setting. Instead, he actually uses the concepts from Pedagogy of the Oppressed and applies them to a current problem. He uses the methodology to better understand the reasons for the marginalization of low-income students in the medical field. It’s compelling because the issues brought up by Walsh are directly reflective of those in the reading; they’re all about understanding and changing the treatment of the oppressed and their chances of education. However, this application focuses more on the economic status and not as much on minorities or ethnic backgrounds. reply Ciara Ann Daniels April 27, 2016 at 19:04 | # After reading “Pedagogy of The Oppressed,” we felt that a lot of the methodology was about the marginalization of low income students. It’s also an innovative type of “teaching method” in a way, as Paulo Freire wrote it as a new approach to education and a way to change and transform the “oppressive structures” especially within the educational system, to create a more equal world among those who have been marginalized or oppressed in society. He mentioned that education can either be “conformity” or “freedom,” and that by combining peers and educators and bringing them together amongst a common forum to discuss critically the realities of the world, we can begin to understand the oppressed and then break free of the societal norm of marginalizing and dehumanizing people based on social and economic status. Pedagogy of The Oppressed can be used as an educational method to encourage freedom and equality by understanding our nation’s oppressive system and then working to positively change and transform it. reply Jeffrey Tyler Gautreau May 04, 2016 at 01:15 | # The Confluencenter for Creative Inquiry Showcase. This event was a large collection of collaborations and interdisciplinary research groups put on to instill knowledge and awareness of what is going on around us that is potentially outside of our comfort zone. The Contemplative Pedagogy Professional Learning Community was a subtopic there involving professors who use meditative/contemplative thought exercises and want to share them with other professors or learn about what other professors are using as teaching methods. All of the professors involved use these contemplative methods in order to have their students look at an experience from a new open perspective. This program and type of thinking fosters students with a new open minded view of human rights issues. reply Maria S Smith May 07, 2016 at 02:15 | # Historically, social research has been rooted in the scientific approach aimed to systematically and quantitatively describe and define social phenomena based in field research and/or laboratories experiments. Autoethnography challenges this approach, as it is neither systematic nor methodological, but more so because this type of research threatens to soften the often hegemonic and elitist voices of academia. It is hinged upon describing cultures, communities, institutions, and varying dimensions of oppression through the introspective perspective of self. In describing autoethnography, I will break down its meaning for clarification: “auto” is self, “ethno” is culture, and “graphy” is the research method and processes aimed to describe and reflectively put the researcher, personal self, “within a social context” (Holt 2003). Another major purpose for this form of research is to encourage researchers to view the “self” as a topic for research and/or their body of thoughts worth examining through abstraction and creativity (Wall 2006). The idea behind this avant-garde approach to social sciences is to accurately and historically depict introspective thoughts, voices, and experiences, as they relate to broader contextual discourse based in literature, thus a means to realize and give an academic platform to marginalized voices. Autoethnography, for many, is a method to fight against systematic hegemony and historical oppression by projecting self into literature. It is social advocacy in its own right in that it is a method that directly reflects and accounts for the pertinent experiences of the suffering. Furthermore, in being able to express the personal self in the social sciences, it enables marginalized voices to be heard, thus it affirms their experiences and has the possibility to invoke real change on issues that are silenced by various institutions. Holt, Nicholas L. (2003). Representation, Legitimation, and Autoethnography: An Autoethnograpic Writing Story. International Institute for Qualitative Methodology: University of Alberta, 2(1), 18-28. Web. Wall, Sarah. (2006). An Autoethnography on Learning About Autoethnography. International Institute for Qualitative Methodology: University of Alberta, 5(2), 146-160. Web. reply Ali Angelo May 09, 2016 at 01:33 | # I learned a bit about Feminist Ethnography. Feminist ethnography is a research method produced by anthropologists and sociologists coming together. According to Kristin Aune, feminist ethnography is often done by feminist researchers. She suggests that since women are able to form better relations with the group they are studying, they may understand the group’s experiences better, and while normally being a woman in research is seen as less authoritative, it is often advantageous when studying groups because they see the researcher as less threatening. Feminist ethnography is a good representation of human rights voices because of the way the research is conducted. Instead of reading articles and journals to research a topic or a certain group of people, these female researchers will immerse themselves in the group. This way, they are able to develop deep personal relationships with members of the group and will acquire inside information that one might otherwise not get. The information and insight the researchers get is also more authentic then perhaps the contents of a journal. Often women receive maltreatment more than men in society, and having a female researcher who can relate and understand can help bring real human rights voices from the ground into the public. -------------- Aune, Kristin. "Feminist Ethnography." Encyclopedia of Gender and Society. Ed. Jodi O'Brien. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc., 2009. 309-311.SAGE Knowledge. Web. 7 Apr. 2016. reply Leave a comment Please login to leave a comment.