The practice of reproductive autonomy among women continues to be heavily restricted by states throughout the world. More specifically, Latin America is recognized as a region where access to abortion is highly limited and, in some cases, nonexistent. In the following sections we will explore the current legal state of abortion in countries like El Salvador, Mexico and Argentina.
For a thorough overview of abortion access in Latin America, please check out this video.
Patient Health Literacy
Responsibility of Providers
Ethical / Legal
- Girls at Risk
- Health History
- FGC & Family History
- Mental Health
- FGC and Mental Health
The chronic illness of leprosy is an infection persisting from ancient Egypt to today. Though a cure exists, centuries of stigma and discrimination have marginalized leprosy patients and made it difficult to effectively treat and diagnose them. Legislation in India, England, and the US forced infected individuals away from their homes, their family, and their community. Religious practices further encouraged the exile of these persons and led to a curable disease becoming debilitating. Today, due to lack of early detection and cultural norms, infected individuals allow the curable disease to progress resulting in nerve damage and disfigurement. Organizations like the United Nations are dedicating themselves to end the stigma and eradicate the disease.
Every single day, all over the world - "People literally disappear, from their loved ones and their community, when state officials (or someone acting with state consent) grab them from the street or from their homes and then deny it, or refuse to say where they are." (“Disappearances”) Families are being torn apart, children are growing up without parent figures, and justice isn't being served to those that are affected. Hundreds of thousands of people have been forced to disappear and that leaves a greater number of loved ones to be in the dark. Many of these people can't find peace until they know what's happened to those that have gone missing. It is said that Sri Lanka, as a whole, can't heal until justice and truth have been served.
Chemical weapons come in a number of forms and, despite being banned internationally, have taken the lives of thousands of innocent people. Chemical weapons have been used both by states and by terrorist organizations as a means of blindly killing thousands. Future chemical weapon threats are associated with terrorist groups and cult-like groups that are able to develop chemical weapons on their own. Chemical weapons survivors are left with long-lasting physical and mental conditions that affect their ability to live life as they once did.
Laborers in Brazil face serious human rights abuses as they are subjected to exploitation in many forms. There is debt bondage, a form of slavery in which companies outsource to immigrants and then subject them to exploitation because they are vulnerable in the unfamiliar environment and do not know their legal rights. Brazilians also face horrible working conditions, forced labor, child labor, and physical and emotional abuse. There is not enough being done at the moment to resolve numerous violations of human rights.
Rape is an ongoing issue that effects many different types of people and genders. When hearing the word rape, many people often think of the most common situation of a man forcing non consensual sex onto a girl. The boundaries of rape expand much farther than that. What I want to address, is rape within the instance of marriage. In some parts of the world, there are perpetrators who can get off of charges of sexual assault if they marry their victims. Even diving in deeper into that, there are many situations where a partner has actually raped their spouse. No matter the circumstances rape is defined as forcing sexual activities on someone who has not given the perpetrator consent. Whether that be when the victim is visibly showing that they don't want to participate or even in times when the victim is unable to give consent in the circumstances where they aren't conscious
In recent years, the incarceration of women has risen at a higher rate than men, with 82% of these imprisoned for nonviolent crimes. In addition, 86% of women in prison have experience sexual violence in their lives. If we want to reduce the incarceration of women, we need to look at all variables and base “punishment” on treatment rather than punishment as revenge for crimes that could be premeditated for reasons like income or sexual abuse.
The death penalty is a widely discussed topic in America and around the world. Can we justifiably kill a killer? Is there a humane way to end someone's life? The public appears to mostly think that no, you can't. There are a number of crimes that will lead to an inmate being sentenced to death. What does it take to get yourself killed? Do other countries kill for different reasons?
“The 2015 Rohingya refugee crisis refers to the mass migration of thousands of Rohingya people from Myanmar (also known as Burma) and Bangladesh in 2015, collectively dubbed 'boat people' by international media. Nearly all who fled traveled to Southeast Asian countries including Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand by rickety boats via the waters of the Strait of Malacca and the Andaman Sea.The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees estimates that 25,000 people have been taken to boats from January to March in 2015 by human traffickers.There are claims that around 100 people died in Indonesia, 200 in Malaysia, and 10 in Thailand] while on their journey after the traffickers abandoned them at sea. In October 2015, researchers from the International State Crime Initiative at Queen Mary University of London released a report drawing on leaked government documents that reveals an increasing "ghettoisation, sporadic massacres, and restrictions on movement" on Rohingya peoples. The researchers suggest that the Myanmar government are in the final stages of an organised process of genocide against the Rohingya and have called upon the international community to redress the situation as such.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rohingya_insurgency_in_Western_Myanmar
The LGBT community in Indonesia is facing many social and political challenges. Politicians have used anti-LGBT rhetoric and government organizations have even placed bans on several LGBT media sources. Governmental officials and Islamic organizations, as well as local oppositions, discriminate against homosexuals and transexuals and diminish their rights at an increasing rate. Several movements and activists continue to fight against homophobia and transphobia year after year, slowly making progress towards equality and tolerance for all sexual orientations and genders.
Repeatedly throughout American history, the United States government has treated the resources of indigenous groups (cultural and geographic) as its own. After forcibly relocating indigenous peoples onto reservations in 1851, the U.S. has, piece by piece, sold portions of ancestral land to non-native business interests without consultation of the concerned tribes. In response to outcry, many lawmakers label the humanist and spiritualist claims of native peoples to be negligible or outright lies, making these claims as self-evident facts which do not require further explanation. These lawmakers include Senator John McCain, Senator Ann Kirkpatrick, Congressman Paul Gosar, and others. Their behavior, and the text of congressional acts concerning native peoples dating back more than a century, betrays a strong undercurrent of racism, motivated by greed, in the highest levels of our society.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in Indonesia face legal challenges and prejudices not experienced by non-LGBTQ residents. Traditional Indonesians disapprove of homosexuality and cross dressing, which impacts public policy. For example, Indonesian same-sex couples and households headed by same-sex couples are not eligible for any of the legal protections available to opposite sex married couples. Indonesia does not have a sodomy law and Indonesia does not currently criminalize private, non-commercial homosexual acts among consenting adults, yet Indonesian law does not protect LGBT community against discrimination and hate crimes. Currently, Indonesia does not recognize same sex marriage. In July 2015, Indonesian Religious Affairs Minister stated that it is unacceptable in Indonesia, because strongly held religious norms speak strongly against it. The importance in Indonesia for social harmony leads to duties rather than rights to be emphasized, which means that human rights along with LGBTQ rights are very fragile. Yet, the LGBT community in Indonesia has steadily become more visible and politically active.
Recently LGBT people in Indonesia are facing growing hostility and intolerance. In early 2016, LGBT people and activists in Indonesia are facing fierce opposition, homophobic attacks, and hate speech, even launched by Indonesian authorities. In February 2016, Human Rights Watch urged Indonesian government to defend the rights of LGBT people and publicly condemn officials' discriminatory remarks.
Coming out to family and friends is seldom carried out by LGBT people in Indonesia, as they are more afraid of rejection and social backlash. Nevertheless, there are some rare examples of understanding and acceptance of the family of LGBT person.
Chinese child labor is often thought to be an outdated issue but this is far from true. Because consumer demand for technological products like our iPhones is quite high, a growth in unregulated working to bring down costs and maximize profits has increased. Currently, the forced labor is hard to measure as these young children are hidden away in sweatshops and factories owned by large companies. Kidnapping has also increased many being forced into either labor work or prostitution. In order for these children to be laborers, they lose their chance to ever get an education. Their hazardous work often impairs them physically and mentally, leading them to never attend any schooling later on. What is most unfortunate is high-tech factories such as Samsung, Apple, or HTC may not even be truly aware of the working conditions themselves. Because the economy is continually booming, the export industry has managed to avoid government control and exploit many from rural areas. Bottom line, there is a lack of extensive monitoring of enterprises and in the majority of cases it isn't even discovered.
The oxymoron “honor killing” has inundated Eastern news, and its significance has unfortunately been ignored. Honor is about respect and moral uprightness In contrast, killing is associated with death, a violation of human rights and a heinous crime. Alas, the two words put together end up meaning cold-blooded murder. In many Eastern cultures, honor is a central value. Families are distinguished or noted among the community depending on how honorable their family is. There is disproportionate pressure on women to comply with a certain code of behaviour. It usually consists of: dressing modestly, not interacting with men outside of their immediate family, and staying an untouched virgin until she marries the man hand-picked by her family. Failing to comply with the norms set by society means staining and dishonouring the reputation of her family. When females damage the family reputation in many Eastern cultures, the men of the family respond by taking their life. This convention is not seen as a crime in many Asian countries, in fact, it is socially acceptable. This is why those who kill for “honor” or cold-blooded murderers as I prefer to reinstate it, are almost never punished. The United Nations estimates around 5000 murders of women per year worldwide from this wicked mindset, and this is an underestimation as many murders occur in sylvan, remote areas and go unreported to authorities. The number is frightening for such a barbaric practice.
Islamophobia is a contrived fear or prejudice fomented by the existing Eurocentric and Orientalist global power structure. It is directed at a perceived or real Muslim threat through the maintenance and extension of existing disparities in economic, political, social and cultural relations, while rationalizing the necessity to deploy violence as a tool to achieve "civilizational rehab" of the target communities (Muslim or otherwise). Islamophobia reintroduces and reaffirms a global racial structure through which resource distribution disparities are maintained and extended.
Source: University of California, Berkeley: Center for Race and Gender
Nevertheless, as internet access via mobile devices continued to climb, reaching over half a billion people during the year, the censorship system was unable to completely stop the circulation of unfavorable news. Dedicated users continued to employ circumvention technology and other, more creative tactics to defy and bypass restrictions on free expression."